The state was founded in 1620 by Raja Bikram Singh (a forerunner to the ruling family’s current nomenclature of Singh Deo), a descendant of the rulers of Porahat, who claimed descent from the Rathore clan of Rajputs. The state came under the influence of the Maratha rulers of Nagpur in the 18th century, and became a princely state of British India in 1803, at the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Maratha War at Deogaon of Orissa. After the war, the East India Company included the Saraikela princely state under the governance of the Chhota Nagpur Commissioner.
In 1912 Saraikela came under the authority of the province of Bihar and Orissa, which was newly created from the eastern districts of Bengal. In 1936 the state was placed under the authority of the Orissa Province. Saraikela, along with 24 other princely states of the Eastern States Agency, acceded to the Government of India on 1 January 1948, with a will to merge the princely state with Orissa province of the Indian Republic.
As a result both Saraikela and Kharsawan princely states were merged with Orissa in 1948. On 1 January 1948 itself, the tribals of these two princely states, who were in a majority, revolted against the merger with Orissa. This was supported by Patayet Sahib Maharajkumar Bhoopendra Narayan Singh Deo, third son of HH Raja Aditya Pratap Singh Deo, as a result of which he was imprisoned to ensure the popular movement died down. The central government appointed a commission under Mr. Baudkar to look into the matter. On the basis of the Baudkar commission report, Saraikela and Kharsawan princely states were merged with Bihar on 18 May 1948. These two princely states became part of Jharkhand when the state was separated from Bihar on 15 November 2000. From 18 May 1948 onward, many non-tribal Oriyas of the districts of Saraikela Kharsawan, East Singhbhum, and West Singhbhum have migrated and settled permanently in Orissa.
Members of the erstwhile royal family of Seraikella, the Singh Deo family (patrons of the Chau dance), divide their time between The Palace, Seraikella-833219; a 300-year-old heritage palace and historical landmark and their residences in Odisha, West Bengal and abroad. The last ruler of the Seraikella princely state was HH Raja Aditya Pratap Singh Deo (son of HH Maharaja Udit Narayan Singh Deo) and notables of the era include his sons Tikayet Sahib Nrupendra Narayan Singh Deo, HH Maharaja Sir Rajendra Narayan Singh Deo (given in adoption to Patna-Bolangir state, former Chief Minister of Odisha), Patayet Sahib Maharaj kumar Bhoopendra Narayan Singh Deo (leading regional politician who supported the popular tribal anti-merger movement with Bihar) and Rajkumar Sudhendra Narayan Singh Deo(Param-Guru of Chau), a Padma Shree awardee.
The Singh Deo royal family remains active in public life(political, cultural and religious)and act as guardians to the Ma Paudi temple located within the Royal residence, host the annual Chau Festival at the Seraikella Royal Palace and retain a hold on the region’s real-estate and business. Despite their loss of formal title and privileges, they enjoy public support in the area(comprising the former Seraikella state). Notable members of the royal family who remain active in the public eye include Rajkumar Pratap Aditya Singh Deo, Rajkumar Juga Bhanu Singh Deo,Maharajkumar Jairaj Singh Deo and Rajkumar Rajvikram Singh Deo. The District of Seraikella and Kharsawan was formed on the 1st Day of April, 2001 after being separated from West Singhbhum dist.
The district is currently a part of the Red Corridor.
The district is situated between 22°29’26” and 23°09’34” north latitudes and 85°30’14” and 86°15’24” east longitudes.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Seraikela Kharsawan one of the country’s 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 21 districts in Jharkhand currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
Seraikela Kharsawan district consists of 09 Blocks. The following are the list of the Blocks in Seraikela Kharsawan district:
There are three Vidhan Sabha constituencies in this district: Ichagarh, Seraikela and Kharsawan. These are parts of Ranchi, Singhbhum and Khunti Lok Sabha constituencies respectively.
According to the 2011 census Seraikela Kharsawan district has a population of 1,063,458, roughly equal to the nation of Cyprus or the US state of Rhode Island. This gives it a ranking of 428th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 390 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,000/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 25.28%. Saraikela Kharsawan has a sex ratio of 958 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 68.85%.
Data Source: WikiPedia