Ranchi district is one of the twenty-four districts of Jharkhand state in eastern India. Ranchi city, the capital of Jharkhand state is the district headquarters. It was established as a district in 1899.
It was made the capital of Jharkhand state which was formed in 2000 from Bihar state. As of 2011 it is the most populous district of Jharkhand (out of 24).
Ranchi is located on the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau which forms the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau. Ranchi is referred to as the “City of Waterfalls“, due to the presence of numerous large and small falls of around the close vicinity of the city. The most popular ones are Dassam Falls, Hundru Falls, Jonha Falls, Hirni Falls and Panchghagh Falls.
The Subarnarekha river and its tributaries constitute the local river system. Dams in Kanke, Rukka and Hatia have been built over these channels to cater to the water requirements of majority the population.
Ranchi has a hilly topography and its combination with dense tropical forests ensures that it enjoys a comparatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. Previously, it was accorded a ‘hill station‘ status during the British rule. Rapid population growth and industrialization have caused considerable change in the weather pattern and rise in average temperatures. This has resulted in gradual loss of this “Hill Station” like status. It also has numerous dams constructed in different regions of the city inside and on the outskirts.
Presently, Ranchi district is divided into 2 sub-divisions and 14 administrative blocks. On 12 September 2007, Khunti district was created by carving Khunti subdivision and its 6 blocks out of Ranchi district.
Ranchi sub-division is further divided into 11 blocks: Angara, Burmu, Bero, Chanho, Kanke, Lapung, Mandar, Namkum, Ormanjhi, Ratu and Silli. Bundu sub-division comprises 3 blocks: Bundu, Sonahatu and Tamar,
The district has 7 Vidhan Sabha constituencies, namely, Tamar, Silli, Khijri, Ranchi, Hatia, Kanke, and Mandar. Silli, Khijri, Ranchi, Hatia and Kanke are part of Ranchi Lok Sabha constituency.