Dhanbad is a city in the Indian state of Jharkhand, India. It is the second most populated city in Jharkhand. Dhanbad along with its urban areas population ranks 42nd in population amongst other cities in India.
Dhanbad is famous for its coal mining, has some of the largest mines in India and is called Coal Capital of India. Tata Steel, Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL), Eastern Coalfields Limited (ECL) and Indian Iron And Steel Company (IISCO) are some of the companies who operate coal mines in the district. The IIT (ISM), Dhanbad is located in Dhanbad.
Among the rail divisions of Indian Railway, Dhanbad Rail Division is the second largest in terms of revenue generation after the Mumbai division.
The city has one parliamentary seat and six seats in the Legislative Assembly.
The Dhanbad originated from the district of Manbhum occupied by Mundari or Kolarian races in the wilderness of South undivided Bihar. In the seventh century A.D. some information is available from the account of the travels of Hieun Tsang. These accounts narrate existence of a powerful kingdom which comprised the district and adjoining areas, ruled by Sasanka.
Manbhum was one of the districts of the East India during the British Raj. After India’s independence, the district became a part of Bihar state, and upon re-organization of the Indian states in the mid-1950s, the district became a part of the West Bengal. Present Purulia district was carved out of the district of Manbhum.
Manbhum region has thick forests, with good mineral resources, and has a mixed demographic profile with people from different religious and social groups, including adivasis, particularly the Santals and the Mundas.
Geography and climate
Dhanbad has an average elevation of 227 m (745 ft). Its geographical length (extending from north to south) is 15 miles (24 km) and the breadth (stretching across east to West) is 10 miles (16 km). It shares its boundaries with West Bengal in the eastern and southern part, Dumka and Giridih in the North and Bokaro in the west. Dhanbad comes under the Chota Nagpur Plateau.
Dhanbad features climate that is transitional between a humid subtropical climate and a tropical wet and dry climate. Summer starts from last week of March and ends in mid-June. Peak temperature in summer can reach 48 °C. Dhanbad also receives heavy rainfall. In winter, the minimum temperature remains around 10 °C with a maximum of 22 °C. Damodar River is the main river flowing through the district. Katri, Jamunia, Gobai, Khudia and Irji are the other rivers flowing through the district.
The present district used to be a part of Manbhum. In the Settlement Report for Manbhum (1928) it was stated that no rock inscriptions, copper plates or old coins were discovered and not a single document of copper plate or palm leaf was found, during the Survey and Settlement operations. The oldest authentic documents produced were all on paper and barely even a hundred years old. Dhanbad was in Manbhum district from 1928 up to 1956.
As of 2011 India provisional census Dhanbad had a population of 2,684,487. Males (1,405,956 ) constitute 53% of the population and females (1,278,531 ) 47%. It has a sex ratio of 908. Dhanbad has an average literacy rate of 80.78%, higher than the national average of 74.04%: male literacy is 87.93% and female literacy is 72.69%. In Dhanbad, 10.57% of the population is under 5 years of age.
Government and PSU organisations
Though managed by a municipal corporation, Dhanbad was listed the least cleanest of all according to the latest Swachh Sarvekshan of 73 Indian cities in 2016. Indian School of Mines (ISM) launched Total Waste Solution, or ToWaSo, a waste management start-up. Taking note of the rising pollution in the coal city, the Municipal Corporation of Dhanbad (MCD) is plannng to plant trees which can absorb toxic gases from the atmosphere.
Dhanbad Rail Division comes under East Central Railway zone. Grand Chord rail-line passes through Dhanbad junction, it connects Howrah and New Delhi. CIC rail line starts from Dhanbad and ends at Singrauli in Madhya Pradesh. There is one more rail line passing through the district, it starts at Kharagpur and ends at Gomoh, this rail line comes under South Eastern Railway. Dhanbad is connected with almost all states through rail network.
On 1 October 2011, India’s first AC double-decker train was flagged off to connect Howrah and Dhanbad. With this India joins the league of Europe and North America that run multi-deck trains. As on October 2011, the train runs daily except Sunday, departing from Howrah at 8:30 am to arrive at Dhanbad at 12:45 pm, and on return trip it departs Dhanbad at 6:30 pm to arrive at Howrah at 10:40 pm. It has a maximum permissible speed of 110 kilometres (68 mi)/hr with stops at Bardhaman, Durgapur, Asansol, Barakar and Kumardhubi on both legs of the route. This new AC design has several features namely stainless steel body, high-speed Eurofima design bogies with air springs and other safety-features. The coaches have a control discharge toilet system.
National Highway 19 and National Highway 18 are the major highways passing through Dhanbad. previously NH 2 now NH 19 and also AH1 is part of Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) highway network; Dhanbad lies in Kolkata-Delhi link of the Golden Quadrilateral network. previously NH2 now NH19 is being converted into six lane expressway;previously NH 32 now NH 18 connects Dhanbad to Bokaro, Purulia and Jamshedpur. Private and State buses are available for inter-city travelling.
Dhanbad Airport is used for private small aircraft and helicopters, currently there is no public air-link at the airport. The nearest public airports to Dhanbad are:
- Kazi Nazrul Islam Airport, Andal 85 km from dhanbad
- Birsa Munda Airport, Ranchi 140 kilometres (87 mi)
- Gaya Airport 207 kilometres (129 mi)
- Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport, Kolkata 269 kilometres (167 mi)
- Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport, Patna 271 kilometres (168 mi)
Chandra Shekhar Agrawal is the mayor, otherwise known as the first citizen, of Dhanbad Municipal Corporation. He won by the margin of 42,525 votes.
Raj Sinha of BJP won in the 40-Dhanbad assembly constituency defeating Mannan Malick of Congress in 2014. Pashupati Nath Singh of BJP defeated Mannan Mallik of Congress in 2005, Prasadi Sao of RJD in 2000, and Ramadhar Yadav of JD in 1995. Surendra Prasad Roy of Congress defeated S.K. Shriva of JD in 1990 and Ram Chander Singh of Janata Party in 1985. Yogeshwar Prasad Yogesh of Congress defeated Gopi Kant Bakshi of CPI(M) in 1980 and Kalawati Devi of Janata Party.
Dhanbad assembly constituency is part of Dhanbad (Lok Sabha constituency).
Cricket is the most popular sport in Dhanbad, followed by Football. Dhanbad is one of the centres where 34th National Games was organised. Cricket Stadiums at present are at Tata Steel Stadium Digwadih, Nehru Stadium Jealgora and Railway Stadium where Ranji Trophy matches are organised. Women’s International Cricket were also played at Railway Stadium. Football matches of national level were played at Railway Stadium but now it is converted into Cricket Stadium by the Railway management and Sijua Stadium.
Dhanbad officially became the second town in the state to boast a cricket stadium with floodlights, with the inauguration of floodlights at Tata Digwadih Stadium.
Data Source: WikiPedia